Glossary

2K component

A molded part made from 2 different materials using an automated manufacturing process which controls the injection of multiple materials.

2K injection molding

A two-step injection process used to create a part using two materials with different properties; performed on one machine programmed to perform 2 injections per cycle. Also called double injection molding or 2 material 2 shot molding.

ACM

Acrylic rubber (ACM) is a synthetic elastomer with outstanding resistance to hot oil and oxidation.

AEM

AEM is a synthethic elastomer with good oil resistance and low temperature properties.

assembly

The process of combining individual components into a finished product during manufacturing.

bioplastics

A plastic material produced from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable oil, corn stach, straw, woodchips, sawdust and recycled food waste.

build to print

Industrialization and production of products according to customer blueprints and 3D models.

build to spec

The process of co-development and manufacture of products according to a client's needs and specifications.

bushing

A component made of rubber or other material that is mounted on car suspension and steering joints to control the amount of movement in the joints and reduce noise and vibration.

calendering

A mechanical process used to manufacture uniform sheets of rubber by forcing the material through a series of aligned cylindrical rolls.

carbon black

Material produced by the incomplete combustion of coal, vegetable matter or petroleum products; used as a pigment and reinforcing agent, especially in compounding rubber to improve resilience and tensile strength.

circular economy

An economic model where goods are produced in a sustainable manner, limiting consumption, eliminating waste, reusing materials and regenerating nature. 

compound

A mixture composed of two or more separate elements united in fixed proportions.

compounding

Process consisting of incorporating and dispersing ingredients to obtain a rubber mixture.

 

compression molding

A method of molding in which material is placed in an open, heated cavity and pressure is applied to force the material into contact with all areas.  Heat and pressure are maintained until the molding material has cured or vulcanized.

copolymer

A chemical compound of high molecular weight formed by uniting the molecules of two or more different compounds.  The properties of plastics can be modified to meet specific needs through copolymerization.

drivetrain

Group of components of a motor vehicle that deliver power to the drive wheels.

elastomer

A natural or synthetic polymer having elastic properties, such as rubber.

EPDM

A synthetic elastomer with good durability, elasticity, impermeability and insulation characteristics; often used for sealing and gasketing. 

extrusion molding

A manufacturing process in which granules melt into a liquid that is forced through a die, forming long shapes, such as tubes.  The extruding machine’s die determines the shape and length of the finished component.

FDA compliant compound

"FDA compliant" means that a material is of "food grade" and meets all of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's guidelines for safe, direct contact with food.

firewall grommet

A guide for cables that offers protection of the main harness between the engine compartment and the passenger compartment in an automobile.

FKM

A family of fluorcarbon-based elastomers with excellent heat and chemical resistance properties.

food-grade compound

Material made of substances which are safe and suitable for their intended use, which do not create a food-safety hazard.  Also called food-safe material.

fossil fuel

Hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the earth's crust from dead plants and animals and burned as fuel. The main fossil fuels include coal, crude oil and natural gas.

fuel cell stack

Individual hydrogen fuel cells stacked to achieve a higher voltage and power

fuel line

Hoses or tubing designed to transfer liquid fuel from a tank to an engine.

gas-assisted injection molding

An injection molding process in which an inert pressurized gas is introduced, pushing the molten plastic into the mold extremities, creating hollow sections.

green energy

Green energy is generated from natural resources, such as sunlight, wind or water.

green hydrogen

Hydrogen produced by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using decarbonised energy sources, such as renewable electricity from wind or solar sources.

HNBR

Hydrogenated form of nitrile rubber widely used due to its physical strength and retention of properties even after exposure to heat, oil, and chemicals.

hot stamping

A printing method of relief printing in which pre-dried ink or foils are transferred to a surface at high temperatures. (Also called foil stamping.)

hydrogen fuel cell

A device that generates electricity through an electrochemical reaction, not combustion. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined to generate electricity, heat, and water.

hydrogen seal

A seal that ensures against hydrogen leakage from hydrogen supply and storage units or systems.

hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

Chemical compound that is colorless, poisonous, corrosive and flammable and having a characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs.

IATF 16949

International technical specification designed to develop a process-oriented quality management system that provides for continual improvement, defect prevention and reduction of variation and waste in the automotive industry supply chain.

injection molding

A manufacturing process for mass producing parts by injecting molten materials, such as rubber, silicone or plastic, into a mold and then cooling and solidifying them.  (U.K. spelling: injection moulding)

internal combustion engine (ICE or IC Engine)

An engine which generates power by burning petrol, oil, or other fuel with an oxidier (usually air) inside a combustion chamber.  The hot gases produced drive a piston or do other work as they expand.

ISO 16949

International quality management standard that provides a framework for best practice with regards to the design and manufacture of products for the automotive supply chain.

ISO 9001

International standard that specifies requirements for a quality managmenet system (QMS) used to demonstrate the ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and regulatory requirements.

laser marking and engraving

Marking methods that use a focused laser beam to permanently alter the surface of an object.

LED

LED (light emitting diode) lights function by passing an electrical current through a microchip, producing light up to 90% more efficiently than incandescent light bulbs.

liquid silicone rubber (LSR)

A versatile elastomer used for its heat resistance, chemical stability, and insulation properties in a variety of applications.

low-fogging compound

Compound with a formula that limits the effects of outgassing of VOCs and other harmful elements that cause haziness or discoloration of glass or plastic.  Also called anti-fogging compound.

natural rubber (NR)

An elastic substance obtained from the latex sap of trees, such as Hevea and Ficus, and used in the manufacture of a wide range of products.

NBR

Nitrile rubber (NBR) is a synthetic polymer material having properties such as good strength and resistance to heat, oil, and chemicals.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

A company that makes products, such as household appliances or automobiles,from component parts purchased from other organizations.

outgassing

Release of gasses that have been absorbed or dissolved in any number of materials, including plastics and rubber. Also called off-gassing.

overmolded LSR seal for hydrogen fuel cell

A seal in which LSR is molded on to inox or composite materials to ensure electrical insulation and fluid and watertightness between bipolar plates and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a hydrogen fuel cell.

overmolding

An injection molding process resulting in a seamless combination of materials into a single part or product.

pad printing

A printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object.  (Also called tampography.)

PET

A form of polyester extruded or molded into plastic bottles and containers for packaging foods and beverages, personal care products, and many other consumer products. It is strong yet lightweight, non-reactive, economical and recyclable.

plastic

A synthetic material made from polymers that can be molded into different shapes.

plastic recycling

The reprocessing of plastic waste into new products to conserve resources and protect the environment from plastic pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

plasticizer

Substance added to a material to make it softer and more flexible, to increase plasticity, decrease viscosity or decrease friction during manufacturing processes. 

polymer

Material made of long, repeating chains of molecules with unique properties, depending on the type of molecules being bonded. Some polymers bend and stretch, like rubber and polyester. Others are hard and tough, like epoxies and glass.

powertrain

An assembly of components, from engine to axle, that propels a vehicle.

processing aid

Component used in manufacturing, processing, packing or packaging of a product to improve processabilty and handling of the material. 

renewable energy

Energy from sources that are constantly and naturally renewed, such as wind power and solar energy  Renewable energy is also called sustainable energy.

rubber

An elastic substance made either from the latex of a tropical plant or synthetically.

rubber compound

Elastomers that are formulated and synthetically produced combining natural rubber, carbon black or any number of chemicals to create desired properties.

 

rubber formulation

The process of creating a formula and adding certain chemicals to raw rubber in order to obtain a material with desired properties.

sandwich injection molding

A molding process in which two different materials are injected into a mold cavity to produce products having surfaces of one plastic and a core of another material.

silicone

An inert synthetic compound that is heat-resistant and rubber-like, and used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, cookware and other applications.

silver sulfide (Ag2S)

Chemical compound that is created when sulfur gasses in the atmosphere react with silver to form a tarnish, corrosive film or whiskers on silver objects; can cause damange to electrical and electronic systems containing silver elements.

silver whiskers

Whisker-like projections that form when a silver object is exposed to silver sulfide;  can result in short circuiting of electrical devices containing silver elements.

stearated

Covered with a dry lubricant to aid the separation of bands or plates of material.

sub-assembly

The process of combining or building components into component assemblies for inclusion in larger end items.

sulfur-free compound

Compound that is formulated without sulfur in order to avoid its corrosive effects on electrical systems.

sustainable energy

Energy from sources that are constantly and naturally renewed, such as wind power and solar energy  Sustainable energy is also called renewable energy.

SVOC (semi-volatile organic compound)

Subgroup of VOCs that tend to have a higher molecular weight and higher boiling point temperature. SVOCs are abundant in indoor environments with potential for negative health effects.

terpolymer

A chemical compound, such as a complex resin, composed of three separate chemical compounds.

thermoplastic

A plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)

A class of materials with outstanding thermal properties and material stability, combining the processing advantages of thermoplastics with the performance of elastomers. Also known as thermoplastic rubber

TPE

Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a family of compounds that offers many of the properties of natural rubber latex, combined with the processing efficiency of plastics.

TPU

Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) is a type of Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) that has good abrasion resistance, chemical resistance and clarity.

ultrasonic welding

An industrial process whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations create a welded part.  Commonly used for plastics and metals.

VOC (volatile organic compound)

Natural or man-made chemicals with high vapor pressure and and low water solubility.  Some VOCs are harmful to human health and the environment.  

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